The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth. Jominy Test and Hardness Depth. Thanks to Walter Jominy (the Chief Metallurgist of Chrysler Corporation sometime before the war), there is a simple but. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set.

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When a hot steel work-piece is quenchedthe area in contact with the water immediately cools and its temperature equilibrates with the quenching medium.

Hardenability – Wikipedia

The recorded hardness depends on the indentation load and the width of the square indentation made by the diamond. This requires the addition of “gettering” elements such as aluminium and titanium to react preferentially with the oxygen and nitrogen in the steel.

This composite microstructure of martensite and austenite gives a lower hardness to the steel, although the microhardness of the martensite phase itself is still high. A typical plot of hardness along the length of the 10 cm long steel rod. The inner depths of the material however, do not cool so rapidly, and in work-pieces that are large, the cooling rate may be slow enough to allow the austenite to transform fully into a structure other than martensite or bainite.

Knowledge of the hardenability of steels is necessary in order to select the appropriate combination of alloy and heat treatment for components of different size, to minimise thermal stresses and distortion.

If the fluid is agitated cooling occurs even more quickly. In the example here, the surface will be transformed to martensite, but the core will have a bainitic structure with some martensite. This information is plotted on a hardenability graph. Select the plot of hardness variation along the test specimen that best describes their behaviour. Plain carbon steel with sufficient carbon e. The bar is divided into 25 equal length elements, and, at each time step of the simulation, for each element, a new temperature, resulting from heat transfer at either end, is calculated.

High carbon steels are prone to distortion and cracking during heat treatment, and can be difficult to machine in the annealed condition before heat treatment. Jominy served as president of ASM in For example, any video clips and answers to questions are missing. The effect of boron is also independent of the amount of boron, provided sufficient is added, and the effect of boron is greatest at lower carbon contents.


You have three steels. The nucleation of ferrite and pearlite occurs at heterogeneous nucleation sites such as the austenite grain boundaries. The cooling rate will be different from one end to the other of the sample, and all you do after it has cooled down completely, is to measure the hardness along its length.

The hardening depth is around 10 mm for the carbon iron the exact number depends on how you define it in this example. The retardation is due to the need for redistribution of the alloying elements during the diffusional phase transformation from austenite to ferrite and pearlite. Overview of Major Steels. The size of the time step is set to the maximum allowed while ensuring numerical stability of the simulation.

These include alloying elements and grain size. The furnace used to heat the steel into the austenite phase field. For example, the cooling rate at a distance of 9.

What is shown is the relation of the hardness values you get throughout the material relative to the hardness you get at a certain distance from cooling only the end in the same medium is what is shown For example, if you can live with the hardness you get 2 cm from the end of a bar in a Jominy test red lineyour bar can gave a diameter of about 10 cm blue line and will have that hardness everywhere if you cool with maximal cooling rate liquid nitrogen, for example.

This animation requires Adobe Flash Player 8 and later, which can be downloaded here. Look at both the microstructures at high magnification, and try to observe the relationship between the volume fraction of martensite and the hardness of the steel.

Hardenability therefore describes the capacity of the jominh to harden in depth under a given set of conditions. Jominy end quench unit for testing the hardenability of steels.

Jominy End Quench Test

In this heat flow simulation you can adjust various parameters and observe the effect on the heat flow and cooling of the specimen. Steels with low hardenability may be used for smaller components, such as chisels and shears, or for surface hardened components such as gears.


Alloying Elements in Detail. Cooling in some well circulated oil is less efficient, the bar diameter goes down to about 6 cm violet line. At higher carbon levels, the formation of martensite is depressed to lower temperatures and the transformation from austenite to martensite may be incomplete, leading to retained austenite.

Similar tests have been developed in other countries, such as the SAC test, which uses a sample quenched from all sides by immersion in water. James Marrow University of Cambridge Content development: The hardness of the samples was measured as a function of the distance from the quenched end to demonstrate the different hardenability of the two steels.

Structure of En 8 at the quenched end of Jominy bar. Structure of En 8, 1 cm from quenched end of Jominy bar. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set of conditions.

This cools the specimen from one end, simulating the effect of quenching a larger steel component in water.

The Jominy Test involves heating a test piece from the steel 25mm diameter and mm long to an austenitising temperature and quenching from one end with a controlled and standardised jet of water. General Remarks to Literature and Sources. Please follow this link if you would like to provide a short review for this TLP.

This describes the ability of the steel to be hardened in depth by quenching. Retrieved from ” https: The data is shown as Vickers and Rockwell hardness. Knowledge about the hardenability of steels is necessary to be able to select the appropriate combination of alloy steel and heat treatment to manufacture components of different size to minimize thermal stresses and distortion.

Modern materials and manufacturing processes. The depth from the quenched end, over which martensite is obtained, is then the measure of hardenability. Three medium carbon steels 0. The graph below gives the Jominy end quench data in terms of the Rockwell hardness number. Data from the Jominy end quench test can be used to determine whether a particular steel can be sufficiently hardened in different quenching media, for different section diameters.