Homopolysaccharides contain only a single type of monomeric unit; heteropolysaccharides contain two or more different kinds of monomeric units ( Fig. ). Homopolysaccharides are polysaccharides composed of a single type of sugar monomer. For example, cellulose is an unbranched homopolysaccharide made. Carbohydrate – Heteropolysaccharides: In general, heteropolysaccharides ( heteroglycans) contain two The major heteropolysaccharides include the connective-tissue polysaccharides, the blood group substances, Homopolysaccharides.

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Heteropolysaccarides contain two or more different kind of monosaccharides. Proton magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance applied to protons H atomsis employed to identify the relative spatial hkmopolysaccharides of individual hydrogen atoms in a molecule. Alternatively, the compact nature of a glycogen molecule of molecular weight equal to that of a molecule of hyaluronic acid results in its accommodation to a heteropolysaccharidrs smaller space than the latter molecule.

Cellulose can give improved volume and texture particularly as a fat replacer in sauces and dressings but its insolubility means that all products will be cloudy.

Because of this, water sticks to GAGs and, since water is not compressable, allows resistance to pressure. The heteropolydaccharides is a less stable [ 910 ].


Contact our editors with your feedback. Heteropolysaccharives study of polysaccharide structure usually focuses on the chemical composition, the linkage between the monosaccharide units, and the size and shape of the molecule.

This page was last edited on 2 Octoberat The alternating action of several enzymes produces a polymer with a precisely repeating sequence, but the exact length varies from molecule to heteropolysacchardes, within a general size class.

Other polysaccharides have structural functions. Also, microbial EPSs can be used in food industry. Discover some of the most interesting and trending topics of This increases hydrogen bonding, resulting in stronger molecules. When a hundred or more of these “decorated” core proteins bind a single, extended molecule homopolysaccnarides hyaluronate, the resulting proteoglycan and its associated water of hydration occupy a volume about equal to that of an entire bacterial cell!

Optical rotation, for example, once was frequently used to characterize carbohydrates. Appl Environ Microbiol Glycogen synthesis is carried out by the enzyme glycogen synthase in which the activated form of glucose, UDP-glucose uridine diphosphateis formed by way of the reaction between UTP and glucose-1 phosphate.


For example, Hyaluronic acid is a structural component that can only be found in animal tissues. Since cellulose is formed by glucose molecules, it can be a source of energy for certain species.

Figure Electron micrographs of starch and glycogen granules. In some glycosaminoglycans, one or more of the hydroxyls of the amino sugar is esterified with sulfate.

In fact, the only chemical difference from cellulose is the replacement of a hydroxyl group at C-2 with an acetylated amino group. Chitin forms extended fibers similar to those of cellulose, and like cellulose is indigestible by vertebrate animals.

How this is accomplished is through an alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkage at the C-4 terminal with the terminal hydroxyl group ready to bind on glycogen. Generally, the EPSs synthesis genes are located on plasmids rather than the chromosome in the most LAB strains [ 24 ]. They have a structural role, and the structures of individual connective-tissue polysaccharides are related to specific animal functions; hyaluronic acid, for example, the major component of joint fluid in animals, functions as a lubricating agent and shock absorber.

Zajsek K, Gorsek A, Kolar M Cultivating conditions effects on kefiran production by the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria imbedded within kefir grains. Hyaluronic acid, one of the polymers that accounts for the toughness and flexibility of cartilage and tendon, typiiies this group of extracellular polysaccharides. It is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature. This compound is made out of a D-galacturonic acid backbone that is bonded to different side chains. Starch is not really a molecule, but a grain formed by two different kinds of molecules: This straight chain conformation is ideal for the formation of strong fibers.

Chitin is another homopolysaccharide which has N-acetylglucosamine as the monomer. Amylopectin also has a high molecular weight up to 1 million but is highly branched Fig.

The rate at which these bonds appear may vary. Alternan Prebiotics, sweetener in confectionaries, low viscosity bulking agent and extender in foods. In plants, starch storage folds to allow more space inside cells. The most important storage polysaccharides in nature are starch in plant cells and heteropolyeaccharides in animal cells. Improves viscoelastic properties of acid milk gels, antimicrobial and wound healing properties, ability to lower blood pressure and cholesterol in serum, capacity to retard tumor growth, enhance immunity of gut.


Under optimal culture condition, 0. The combination of these sulfate groups and the carboxylate groups of the uronic acid residues gives the glycosaminoglycans a very high density of negative charge. Such chains vary in molecular weight from a few thousand toApplications of functional exopolysaccharides and oligosaccharides from lactic acid bacteria [10]. In conclusion, some EPSs produced LAB have showed ability being used as a viscosifer, thickener, emulsifier or stabilizer in the food industry [ 23 ].

Basically, depending on the composition of the repeating units and biosynthesis pathway, Heteropolysxccharides can be classified by two parts.

Chapter 11 : Carbohydrates

Heteropolysaccharides In general, heteropolysaccharides heteroglycans contain two or more different heteropolyscacharides units. The three-dimensional structure of carbohydrate-containing macromolecules can be understood using the same principles that explain the structure of polypeptides and nucleic acids: It is focused on characterization and expression analysis of the EPS gene cluster, on using low cost substrates and improving downstream processing.

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents, Antarctic ecosystem, saline lakes and geothermal springs are extreme environmental and several microorganisms heteropolysacchaarides from these areas. These polysaccharides often contain tens of thousands of monomers, and each type is synthesized in the cell and broken down when energy is needed. Ion-binding ability also appears to be related to the anticoagulant activity of the heteropolysaccharide heparin.

The long fibers of cellulose are held together by intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Here GAG disaccharides are added to protein cores to create proteoglycans. Some types of cellulase already find uses in industry, for example in food production and the textile industry. Together with the sugar activation and modification enzymes are played a vital role in the formation of the building blocks and the final EPS composition [ 27 ]. This is a great example of a symbiotic relationship.