HEPLER STRAND 1990 PDF

The concept of pharmaceutical care founded by Hepler and Strand in the early s. [1] The American society of health system pharmacist. According to the definition of Hepler & Strand pharmaceutical care is “the definite outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life” (Hepler and Strand, ). 1 Hepler, CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J. Hosp Pharm, ; 2 Commission to Implement Change.

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The scope of pharmacy and the functions of pharmacists.

Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care.

Hosp Pharm, ; Pharmacists and their institutions must stop looking inward and start redirecting their energies to the greater social good.

Drug-related morbidity and mortality are often preventable, and pharmaceutical services can reduce the number of ADRs, the length of hospital stays, and the cost of care. Pharmaceutical care focuses the attitudes, behaviours, commitments, concerns, ethics, functions, knowledge, responsibilities and skills of the pharmacist on the provision of drug therapy with the goal of achieving definite heller outcomes toward patient health and quality of life.

It will be necessary to set new practice standards, establish cooperative relationships with other health-care professions, and hfpler strategies for marketing pharmaceutical care. Pharmacy has shed the apothecary role but has not yet been restored to its erst-while importance in medical care. Pharmacists must abandon factionalism and adopt patient-centered pharmaceutical care as their philosophy of practice.

The reasons for this include an increase in the number of elderly in the population and the trend to shorten periods of hospital treatment.

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Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Aspects of pharmaceutical care. In certain countries, more patients are being treated with complex therapies in intermediate care facilities or in their homes.

Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care.

Bearing in mind the particular stages of development of healthcare delivery and pharmaceutical services in particular countries, pharmacists will need to use their professional discretion strad setting priorities for the achievement of these objectives. The Group recognized that the team approach is vital to achieve the optimum use of limited resources – both human and financial – in meeting healthcare needs in all countries.

Manpower imbalances in pharmacy.

Consequently, the Group believes that pharmaceutical care provision will extend beyond the traditional pharmacy establishments and that pharmacists will have to collaborate with one another to ensure continuity of pharmaceutical care.

Changing the focus of practice from products and biological systems to ensuring the best drug therapy and patient safety will raise pharmacy’s level of responsibility and require philosophical, organizational, and functional changes.

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Where the pharmacist alone provides pharmaceutical care to a patient by initiating the therapy with a non-prescription drug or acts within a team on a prescribed therapy, the standards of the pharmacists activities should conform to national pharmacy standards based on the International Pharmaceutical Federation FIP Guide to Good Pharmacy Practice.

Although this definition focuses on drug therapy in the individual patient, the Group chose hepleg expand the beneficiary of pharmaceutical care to the public as a whole and also to recognize the pharmacist as a health care provider who can actively participate in illness prevention and health promotion along with other members of the health care team.

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The knowledge and expertise of pharmacists. A position paper Entry-level Education in Pharmacy: Alexandria VA 6. Pharmacy’s reprofessionalization will be completed only when all pharmacists accept their social mandate to ensure the safe and effective drug therapy of the individual patient.

Pharmacy’s opportunity to mature as a gepler by accepting its social responsibility to reduce preventable drug-related morbidity and mortality is explored.

Thus, although the roles of pharmacists are considered in this report, the Group recognized that pharmaceutical care is not provided in isolation from other health care dtrand, but in collaboration with patients, physicians, nurses and other healthcare providers. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy News. Pharmacy manpower development for health care systems. Some 12, deaths and 15, hospitalizations due to adverse drug reactions ADRs were reported to the FDA inand many went unreported.

It is not enough to dispense the correct drug or to provide sophisticated pharmaceutical services; nor will it be sufficient to devise new technical functions. Monitoring of pharmacy manpower development.

A Commitment to Change. The Group considered pharmaceutical care to be an overarching practice philosophy to which all pharmacists should aspire.