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Received Jul 4; Accepted Aug All patients provided informed consent, and an external ethical committee approved the study protocol. The results showed that the CS is often removed and discarded if found in substantial quantity unpublished data.

Cervical secretions CS are always present in variable proportions, and when cleaning the cervix, better samples may be obtained. Cervical mucus, liquid-based cytology, sampling studies, cervical cytology.

Table 1 Sample characteristic and kind of inflammation detected in the histophatologycal analyze in CS and SS respectively. In cytology cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance ASC-US or in which a high-grade squamous intraepithelial ginecologla could not be excluded ASC-Hadditional slides were analyzed for p16 expression to confirm or rule out CIN.

Conversely, the CS was in contact with the vaginal wall and contained diagnostic cells in this case, and the biopsy found a typical condyloma with koilocytes. All cases ginecloogia abnormal previous cytology, regardless of the colposcopy diagnosis, underwent biopsy. Cervical cytology specimen adequacy: National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

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Cervical sampling including CS results in lower sensitivity and CIN detection rates, and in more inflammatory reactions. In cases of atrophy or if the SQCJ was ginecklogia visible in endocervical canal with a very small orifice, two devices were used: The results of the present study raise an important question: A modified terminology for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

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The age of the study cohort ranged from years, with an average age of 33 years. Most patients were middle-class Caucasian or Hispanic women. A Resource Pack for Trainers.

However, when the cervix is cleaned using a cytobrush, the abundance of the mucus becomes apparent, and these CS samples were found to have less epithelial cells and more inflammatory reactions than the samples obtained from the cleaned btos.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. Koss [ 19 ] answers this question by referring to some very early papers, including Sedlis et al.

A biopsy was performed in cases, in which acetowhite imaging was seen; of these, 24 cases had a previous positive biopsy. Accordingly, the authors concluded that the cervix should be wiped at the discretion of the clinician. Some cases appeared very clean even if the surface was covered with abundant transparent mucous; and hence, at first sight, some gynecologists or colposcopists may decide not to clean the surface. By excluding CS from cervical samples, the sensitivity could be improved and the false negative rate could be reduced.

Dysplastic cells of the same patient, in A from the Cs, with more inflammatory cells, and the nucleus of the atypical cells are note clearly seen. The SS was obtained from the transformation zone using a cervical cytobrush or broom depending of the nature of the TZ. Thieme Medical Publishers; If not cleaned, the mucus may prevent the instrument from obtaining cells from the cervical surface. When obtaining cervical samples, whether the samples are taken from the transformation zone and whether abnormal cells are missing must be considered.

In our study, colposcopy was used to detect small lesions, which were confirmed by cytology and diagnosed by biopsy. Cervicovaginal cytology based on the Papanicolaou technique: Thus, gently removing the CS without touching the cervical surface should be recommended in any procedure for obtaining a cervical cytology sample. All CIN-positive cases detected in the CS samples and SS were confirmed by biopsy and p16 immunohistochemical staining, and were considered true positive cases.

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To date, no analysis on what the mucus contains from the cervix has been performed. This condition is rare and was detected from a thorough inspection of the vagina when sampling the cervix.

In our study, the only positive case detected in the CS not detected in the SS was a lesion in the vaginal wall that was not accessible to the instrument for sampling the cervix in the SS. Ediciones Journal Junin; False negative frequency in the cervical secretion CS samples and clean, second samples SS.

The quality of samples according to the Bethesda System, the presence of CIN, and inflammatory reactions were recorded. This could be justified in part by the presence of an atrophic cervix, a small TZ, or by the squamocolumnar junction not being visible.

Cases in which biopsy was not performed were considered as true negative based on a previous and actual negative cytology or previous colposcopy results that were considered obviously mistaken. The methods for obtaining samples finecologia been described elsewhere [ 4 – 8 ].

Evaluation of two simultaneously obtained cervical cytology smears. Principles and practice of colposcopy.

La crétinisation par la culture

In conclusion, it is currently not clear for the physicians and personnel who are involved in sampling the cervix what the optimal way to handle CS is. The types of diagnosed CIN were divided as shown in Table 2. The brush is rolled gently without touching the cervical surface.