Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells. Basic mechanisms of electrical field generation in the tissue. Recording protocols Electroretinography (ERG) alone does not give you necessarily a diagnosis. Electroretinogram: An electrical diagnostic test of retinal function in situ. Electro – part Show you the basic clinical test; Show some research examples. The Eye .

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However, the cellular origin of the different components needs to be understood. Differential recording in the rat retina using two microelectrodes revealed that the a-wave resulted from extracellular radial current. The basic waveform of the ERG a-wave b-wave complex was not changed by these drugs; however, elecroretinogram bicuculline and strychnine, the b-wave was augmented, indicating removal of inhibitory contributions.

The difference between these field potentials arises from their photoreceptor basis.

Clear Turn Off Turn On. The ERG parameters that are customarily measured in the ophthalmic clinic for electrodiagnosis. The contribution of voltage- and time-dependent poassium conductances to the electroretinogram in electroretinohram.

Electroretinography – Wikipedia

Similar articles in PubMed. Accurate measurement of the P-II amplitude can supply valuable information to the clinician on the functional integrity of the retina. This basocs 6 protocols named according to the strength of the stimulus in candela. The dashed traces are the theoretical rod responses that electroretiinogram derived from bright flash responses as described above.

Isolating the oscillatory potentials from the bright flash ERG response of the human eye a by applying a digital filter b. The early receptor potential in dominantly inherited retinitis pigmentosa.

The electroretinogarm source of the ERG b-wave is still under dispute. This is the ERG: Whereas the STR reflects rod-mediated vision, the M-wave is dominated by the cone system. Enroll in the Residents and Fellows contest.


The data points from these laboratories fall within our normal range, indicating normal retinal function. Opt Soc Am Tech Dig. By fitting rod a-waves to the phototransduction model Eq. Due to the c-wave response developing over several seconds, it is susceptible to influences from eleectroretinogram drift, eye movements, and blinks. Furthermore, these parameters indicate the nature of the disease: Depth recordings of extracellular concentration of potassium and of local field potentials are shown in Fig.

The Electroretinogram: ERG – Webvision – NCBI Bookshelf

Implicit time or peak time is a measure of the time interval from onset of the stimulus to the peak of the b-wave. Fitting cone a-waves to the phototransduction model.

This filter represents membrane capacitance that determines the rate at which the photocurrent is translated into membrane potential. In contrast, a disorder that affects the sensitivity S will cause a smaller or even normal amplitude a-wave, but when scaled to the normal one, a delay in its development will be seen Granit termed the different components in sequence of their disappearance: The fast cone-mediated ERG is sometimes referred to as the x-wave 97 The a-wave elecfroretinogram is measured from baseline bsics the trough of the a-wave.

In the ophthalmic clinic, the most common recording of ERG responses contains the negative a-wave and the positive b-wave. The form and magnitude of the electrical response of the eye to stimulation by light at various intensities.


Richard Normann at the National Institutes of Health, on aspects of information processing in the turtle retina.

The major contribution comes from light-induced activity in ON-center bipolar cells. This change will be electroretinnogram in the ERG responses that are measured with extraocular electrodes. However, by separating the retina from the pigment epithelium, P-I can be eliminated; and by exposing the retina to drugs, such as aspartic acid, which blocks synaptic transmission from the photoreceptors to the neurons in the inner nuclear layer, the P-III component can be isolated and studied Assigned status Up to Date by Peter A.


Over the years, since the first recording of electroretinpgram ERG responses and with greater understanding of retinal function at the cellular and molecular levels, more advanced analytical approaches have been developed. A pharmacological approach to the study of the origin of the ERG a-wave became possible when the identity of the neurotransmitter released from the photoreceptors electrorrtinogram known.

Rod photoreceptors detect elecrtoretinogram flicker. This page was last modified on July 18,at In general, when retinal function deteriorates, the light-induced electrical activity in the retina reduces. ERG responses that were recorded from one subject with corneal electrode in the dark-adapted state.


The waves are called a- b- and c-waves. Specific deficit of the ON response in visual transmission by targeted disruption of the mGluR6 gene. The b-wave is also found to be affected by drugs that modulate GABA C -type receptors, indicating that negative feedback from amacrine cells onto bipolar cells can shape the photoresponses of the bipolar cells and thus the amplitude and kinetics of the ERG b-wave The c-wave of the direct-current-recorded electroretinogram and the standing potential of the albino rabbit eye in response to repeated series of light stimuli of different intensities.

Some of this variability is due to species differences, particularly the relative densities of rods and cones, whereas technical factors, such as duration and intensity of photostimulation and method of recording, also affect the waveform. If these electrodes are placed at the loci designated in Fig.

Brown KT, Watanabe K.