Peruvian intellectual José Carlos Mariátegui (–) mentioned as a ripe site for new . tegui calls “el problema del indio.” Mariátegui’s. En este programa tratamos un capítulo de Siete ensayos de interpretación la realidad peruana de José Carlos Mariátegui. Puedes leerlo. Esquema de la evolución económicaEl problema del indioEl problema de la tierraEl proceso de la instrucción públicaEl factor religioso.

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In the sierra, agrarian feudalism is priblema to create wealth or progress. Castilla realized that the liberals of his time were a literary group, a coterie, not a class. Feudalism is, as Vasconcelos implies, a blight inflicted upon us by colonialism.

Books by José Carlos Mariátegui

The Inca regime was unquestionably theocratic and despotic. The stylized, synthesized ceramics mariatebui the Indians cannot have been produced by a crude or savage people. And the Indian has never felt less free than when he has felt alone.

The struggle for independence in many cases united the land-holding nobility and the bourgeois merchants, either because the former had been indoctrinated with liberal ideas or because it regarded the revolution as only a liberation movement from the Spanish crown.

Absolutism always means poverty for the many and opulence and abusive power for the few. Although the Inca regime may be censured in the name of modern liberal concepts of liberty and justice, the positive and material historical fact is that it assured the subsistence and growth of a population that came to ten million when the conquistadors arrived in Peru, and that this population after three centuries of Spanish domination had fallen to one million.


José Carlos Mariátegui by Lesly Palomino on Prezi

rpoblema Nor were they incio with the need to do business, make contracts, or engage in trade. The Spanish colonizer conspicuously lacked this ability. The second class also lived in comfort, peacefully engaged in industry or commerce; it was the middle class that sat on the municipal council. Before coastal agriculture acquired a capitalist organization, the factor of irrigation was not important enough to determine the accumulation of property.

Perhaps the only true colonizers sent to us by Spain were the Jesuit and Dominican missionaries. This was undoubtedly the intention of the codifiers of rights in Peru.

Nevertheless, property is also accumulated in the sierra. Temporal and spiritual power have been but recently divorced; and it is more a separation of bodies than a divorce. And frequently the huts that he rents to the laborers do not differ greatly from the sheds that formerly served as slave quarters.

Colonization unquestionably must bear the responsibility for the disappearance of this economy, together with the culture it nourished, not because it destroyed autochthonous forms but because it brought no superior substitutes.

And this comparison requires a certain degree of historical relativism. A cattle rancher on the coast cannot obtain a substantial bank loan for expanding his business, and unless a farmer can put up as security either a cotton or sugar-cane crop, he is no better off.

If the spirit of liberty was revealed to the Quechua, it indip undoubtedly in a formula or rather in an emotion unlike the liberal, Jacobin, and individualist formula of liberty. Demographic statistics for the rural district of Pativilca three years ago showed a higher death rate than birth rate.

But this is a specious argument, with only a grain of truth. Although the landholding aristocracy in principle forfeited its privileges, in fact it maintained its position.


Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality

The abuses and interests of the gamonales are nidio opposed to a strict application of the law conscripting road workers. It continued to be the dominant class in Peru. The Negro race he imported indjo to serve, among other things, to reduce the demographic imbalance between white and Indian. By law, the encomendero was in charge of collecting taxes and of the organization and conversion to Christianity of his tributaries. The laws of the state are not applied in the latifundium without the tacit or formal consent of the large landowners.

Unless forced to by circumstances, the colonial latifundium has not renounced its feudal treatment of the worker. Between servitude based largely on violence and coercion and free labor based on purely economic necessity there extends a whole transitional system of extremely varied forms that combine the features of the barchtchina and the prolema earner.

Instead of neglecting its indigenous customs, it has utilized them to carry out the work insio the enterprise. Up to William of Hohenzollern, monarchs have invoked their divine right. Feudalism and absolutism gradually transformed the communal organization of the peasants into an instrument of exploitation. I want to restate here the defense that I made of Inca communism and refute the most recent liberal thesis, presented by Augusto Aguirre Morales in his novel El pueblo del sol.