The Spanish coup d’état attempt known in Spain by the numeronym F and also known As planned, the coup would require Tejero and General Jaime Milans del Bosch as its principal instigators, .. and Keystones of the Assault on Congress (El Golpe: Anatomía y Claves Del Asalto Al Congreso) by Busquets. – Buy F: El Golpe Del Cesid book online at best prices in India on Read F: El Golpe Del Cesid book reviews & author details and. Un civil y 32 militares fueron procesados por el intento de golpe de Estado Paradójicamente, el entonces comandante del Cesid José Luis.
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The officers held the parliamentarians and ministers hostage for 18 hours, during which time King Juan Carlos I denounced the coup in a televised address, calling for rule of law and the democratic government to continue. Though shots were fired, the hostage-takers surrendered the next morning without killing anyone.
The coup attempt was linked to the Spanish transition to democracy. Four factors generated tensions the governing Democratic Center Union coalition of conservative parties could not contain:.
The first cesdi of unease in the army appeared in April In Novemberthe Operation Galaxia military putsch was put down. Its leader, Lieutenant-Colonel Antonio Tejerowas sentenced cesld seven months in prison. While seditious sentiments grew in sectors of the military and extreme right, the government faced a serious crisis at the beginning of the decade, and its position became increasingly untenable in the course of From 2 February to 4 February, the King and Queen traveled to Guernica cesir, where the deputies of Basque separatist party Herri Batasuna received them with boos and hisses and various incidents.
On 6 February, an engineer named Ryan from the Lemoiz nuclear project was found murdered, having been kidnapped a few days earlier.
On 10 February, Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo was named candidate for prime minister. The government then desid various police chiefs, while in the Interior Ministry there were resignations in solidarity with the torturers. Against this extraordinary backdrop, Calvo Sotelo presented his proposed government on 18 February, but, during congressional voting on the 20th, he failed to obtain the necessary majority approval for confirmation as Prime Minister, so a new vote was scheduled for the 23rd: Several TVE cameramen and technicians filmed almost half an hour of the event, providing the world with an audiovisual record of the attempted coup which would be cesidd several hours after it ended.
El Golpe del Cesid (Spanish, Hardcover)
Moreover, members of the private radio station SER continued their live broadcast with open microphones from within the Congress of Deputies, which meant that the general public was able to follow along by radio as events unfolded. As such, the date is sometimes remembered as “the Night of Transistor Radios” La noche de los transistores.
The shots wounded some of the visitors in the chamber’s upper gallery. After several minutes, all the Deputies retook their assigned congressional seats.
Shots were fired in response, and a guard flashed a submachine gun towards the deputies’ seats, demanding silence. One of the assailants ordered, “Mr. Shortly afterward, five of the parliament’s deputies were separated from the rest: The insurgents’ hope, in taking both the executive and legislative authorities prisoner, was to create a power vacuum that would force a new political order.
Almost at the same time, the Captain General of the Third Military Region, Jaime Milans del Boschjoined the coup with a revolt in Valenciaordering tanks to be brought out onto the streets and declaring a general state of emergency in an attempt to convince other senior military figures to align with him in supporting the coup.
The coup was vehemently condemned by member countries of the EECespecially since Spain was in preliminary negotiations for membership eventually joining in Margaret Thatcherprime minister of the UK, called the coup a “terrorist act.
Meanwhile, another insurgent general, Torres Rojasfailed in his attempt to oust General Juste in the Brunete division of the military, resulting in Torres Rojas having to abandon his plan to take control of certain key strategic points in Madrid, including State radio and television headquarters and, therefore, firsthand control of the information as events unfolded. Originally, Armada, one of the coup’s conspirators, had advocated a “milder” course of action, which he then proceeded to implement.
Los que quedan del golpe | Edición impresa | EL PAÍS
Arriving at the Zarzuela Palacethe royal residence, Armada offered the monarch a trade-off: The King, however, refused to receive Armada, who, shortly before midnight, entered the Congress of Deputies alleging that the King had ordered him to assume leadership holpe the government. As Armada was not the “competent military authority” that Tejero had been waiting for, the latter rejected Armada’s claims with “My general, I didn’t assault Congress for this” and, after that, ignored him.
Deploying 2, men and fifty tanks from his Motorized Division as well as troops from the port of Valencia onto the streets and into the city center, they occupied the Town Hall Ayuntamiento and the Valencian judicial court building Las cortes valencianas.
The revolt, known as Operation Turiawas considered key if other military regions were to become involved in the coup. Police snipers gllpe their places on rooftops, military marches were played on loudspeakers and a curfew was imposed on the citizens. An armored convoy was dispatched to the Manises airbase in order to convince the commander there to support the coup; however, the Colonel of the 11th Wing in charge of the base not only refused to comply, he threatened to deploy two fighter jets armed with air-to-ground missiles which he claimed to have standing by with their engines running against the tanks sent by Milans del Bosch, thereby forcing the latter to withdraw.
King Juan Carlos refused to endorse the coup. The monarch, after protracted discussions with colleagues, was convinced of his military leaders’ loyalty to himself and the Constitution. He also noted the attitude of the President of the autonomous government of CataloniaJordi Pujolwho just before In the face of these exceptional circumstances, I ask for your serenity and trust, and I hereby inform you that I have given the Captains General of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force the following order:.
Given the events taking place in the Palace of Congress, and to avoid any possible confusion, I hereby confirm that I have ordered the Civil De, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff to take any and all necessary measures to uphold constitutional order within the limits of the law. Should any measure of a military nature need to be taken, it must be approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Crown, symbol of the permanence and unity of the nation, will not tolerate, in any degree whatsoever, the actions or behavior of anyone attempting through use cesdi force to interrupt the democratic process of the Constitution, which the Spanish People approved by vote in referendum.
From that moment on, the coup was understood to be a failure. The deputies were freed that morning. The most immediate consequence was that, as an institution, the Monarchy emerged from the failed cewid with overwhelming legitimacy in the eyes of the public and the political class. In the long term, the coup’s failure could be considered the last serious attempt by adherents to Francoist ideology to destroy Spain’s future as a democracy and implement their fascist totalitarian designs on the nation.
Eventually, thirty people out of some accused would be convicted for their involvement in the coup. Ddel extent of any civilian involvement in planning the coup has never been thoroughly investigated [ citation needed ].
Local nationalists have asserted that the LOAPA law limiting the devolution to the autonomous vesid was passed to placate the military. The bloodless yet apparently chaotic unravelling of the coup, the plethora of unanswered questions as to its unfolding, the staunch monarchist allegiance of two main conspirators Armada and Milans del Bosch and the King’s lengthy absence before he finally made a late-night public television address have fueled skepticism and conspiracy theories during the Campamento trial and have remained active ever since.
These theories cast doubt on the sincerity of the King’s defense of democracy and qualify the coup as an example of coercive realpolitik taken to the next cesld. In essence, this version of events alleges that the coup itself was orchestrated by the Spanish Secret Glpe in connivance with the King and the Royal House as well as representatives of the major political parties and mainstream media, among others.
The plot’s centerpiece and apparent motivation was the so-called Operation Armadaa “soft” coup modeled after Operation De Gaulle and aimed at a national-unity government headed by Armada himself, consisting of an array of ministers from all the main political parties. Two reasons have been cited why this alleged plot was considered particularly dangerous: It has been alleged      that during a lunch break in the F trial, and after being subjected to a particularly intense grilling session by the prosecutor, Cortina grabbed a phone and was heard saying: The prosecutor’s questioning allegedly lost a great deal of intensity when court resumed after the lunch break, and Cortina was finally acquitted.
Well far from it: From my fatherwho was in Estoril — and was also very surprised to be able to contact me by phone — from my two sisters in Madrid and from friendly heads of State who encouraged me to resist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Date February Location Madrid and Valencia. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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