Imagined communities: constructing collective identities in medieval Europe by Andrzej Pleszczyński() 6 editions published in in English and held by Myśliwski, Grzegorz: Początki związków Wrocławia i Hanzy niemieckiej. Chabrowski, Igor: Chongqing i kultura popularna, f — w Malinowski, Marek I.: Dzieje Afryki Południowej od ery prehistorycznej do końca XVI w. Lubeka · Królowa Hanzy. Ludwigshafen · Osnabrück · Kultura pamięci. Poczdam · Fabryka .. Trudno się dziwić, że tak wiele dzieje się tu na zewnątrz.

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First of all, it is necessary to introduce the range of sources which can be used and subsequently the following three questions will be discussed: A random example of the warranty clause: So if we are to compare the income from the pledged church property, one possible source for the comparison are land and duty registers of the preHussite period, which basically include incomes from particular estates Emler, Due to the diversity of the pledging provisions and lack of regulation, any attempt at integrating these into a unified system is problematic; the terms of a contract were often valid only for that particular instance.

The book of accounts analysed here is the earliest surviving document with mixed records in both Latin and German. Pardon was offered to the participants of the rebellion but, of course, it had its price; amnesty was granted for money or for the surrender of domains. There are only a few works touching upon the topic of pledging in medieval Hungary. The copper pfennig was to remain legal tender as the official regional coin, although it had been banned in Speyer.

The study copies of all the pledge charters as well as of other sources are available at this branch office. Regarding the reception of the imperial decree on coinage, it makes sense to look at individual Imperial Circles. Both sides of the dispute sent messengers to the king who commissioned his official — vicetavernicus Demeter together with the representatives mayors of five other towns in Central Slovakia to consider the case and pass judgement.

Verfassung, Verwaltung und Recht der Stadt Breslau. In andPeter submitted two other balance sheets with the total amount of debts owed by the King, first 1, shocks groschen, and then 8, shocks groschen Emler,nos. This decree created a new imperial coin in the form of a silver guilder Silbergulden and beyond that, different kinds of coins, which were to be minted in the Empire alone.


At the same time, Frenzlin himself owed debts to members of his family and other creditors from the circle of the town elites. Nonetheless, they were later confronted with the problem of an influx of foreign coins, the export of imperial coins and the increase of small money.

Kalendarium historii Wrocławia

However, it is to the historical merit of Charles IV that he tried to overcome the local and regional monetary systems and intended to create a system of coinages that were easily convertible with one another. The Kremnica Town Book of Accounts 55 8. The second ezieje consists of five chapters related to medieval court funding.

To these, a total of charters whose full text is known to us, we can add abstracts that are extant in various forms.

Kalendarium historii Wrocławia – Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia

Zwischen Maas und Rhein. Moreover, according to the same author, Sigismund was accused of irresponsible spending by his brother, Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia — and the Romans —because he pawned and sold dzeije silver and gold jewels Altmann,pp.

Considering these debts see Table 4. The Sulzbach Heller legislation explicitly relates to the negotiations concerning the gold coinage, which had proved unsuccessful, and suggests regulating silver coinage instead.

The problem was not that the territorial government lacked economic resources, but was mainly in its inability to convert these resources into the form of coinage Reichert,pp.

The works of Marxist historians produced the greatest responses and polemics. In comparison with social and cultural history, the conceptual and theoretical impulses of economic anthropology got to the discourse of economic dzieue only gradually and with considerable delay.

The remission of regular taxes was compensated for by a number of exceptional taxes and loans, which will be mentioned later on. Without exception, they were pledged church estates. Rough collection of money caused a revolt by Prague elites in summerwhich was suppressed by the king Emler,pp.

It represents one of the steps in the long time tendency kultira in the conception of the transition from the domain state to the tax state formulated by Josef Schumpeter and further developed by Austrian school of economic history represented for example by Theodor Mayer; see MayerPetersenSterneckpp — In this way the author tries to quantify the total expenses for various building activities in particular years.

According to the Strasbourg messenger Claus von Grostein, however, these plans were valid when the diet of Nuremberg dzije Metz commenced in It is therefore understandable hazy the older debts in closing accounts were not specified and were only briefly mentioned, as they were known to the small circle of interested persons.


To the legal aspects of pledging of the royal property compare Kapraspp. We can see kultufa this how persistently burgher creditors had to collect repayment of their debts.

The contents of the book include closed and current income and expenses, debts that the town owed to other entities and debts owed by other entities or persons to the town, as well as loans to the king and specific taxes listed on the occasion of his visit. The chapter kulura with methodological questions such as what has been recorded in the accounts and, equally importantly, what has been not recorded and in what manner the entry was made.

His research focuses on medieval towns, mining and long-distance trade. Matthias and his legacy. Kaiser in Mitteleuropa — Austria Koch, Das Kultuga Kriegsbuch — The geographical focus of the case studies presented in this volume range from Wales and Scotland, to Hungary and Ruthenia, while both narrative and other types of evidence, such as legal texts, are drawn upon. In addition, Jacob von Zitzewitz authored several memoranda that were handed over, possibly as early as the Diet in Speyer but certainly by the time of the Diet in Nuremberg.

Custom and Law in Central Europe. This chapter focuses on fragments from lost accounting books, based on the assessment and interpretation of some direct references to them as well as on their indirect reflections in other sources.

Folia historica Bohemica, 9: Also, since the mids, Arnold had been responsible for the imitation and even forging of English sterling coins in the county of Luxembourg. Herausgegeben von Karel Hruza. However, the right of transferability was not a royal privilege or a specific right of the pledger only; sometimes the pledgees were invested with such authority too.

InHenry VII, Count of Luxembourg, and his brother Walram promised their help against the Bishop of Metz to the burghers of Metz in return for military pay of at least 50, livres gros tournois Reichert,pp. InJohn confirmed his alliance with Philip: