Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ) Horne, Weinman, Hankins, () Psychology and Health, 14, BMQ –Specific. Your views about medicines. This paper presents a novel method for assessing cognitive representations of medication: the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The BMQ-Specific assesses representations of medication prescribed for personal use and the BMQ-General assesses beliefs about medicines in general.

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SPSS for Windows step by step: World Health Organisation and University of Amsterdam; This editing process was needed to create a Maltese text which is maximally suitable for the intended patients.

Specific-Concerns scale assesses perceptions of the likelihood of adverse reactions as a consequence of taking the prescribed medication. Beliefs about medicines among Swedish pharmacy employees. He mexicines ambiguities and provided a document on how to use and analyse the BMQ. Principal component analysis carried out on individual sub-scales to confirm factor loading.

Consecutive patients were approached until the target of patients per chronic illness group was achieved. The level of education of most of the participants in Malta was similar to the Portuguese version where the majority of patients had completed elementary school and with the original BMQ where the majority of participants had a secondary level of education.

Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

Neame R, Hammond A. Proofreading The draft in the Maltese language was checked medkcines minor errors that might have been disregarded during the translation process by the principal investigator and a colleague. The final solution for Principal Belies Analysis yielded a four-factor structure representing the 4 sub-scales of the BMQ, with results being comparable to previous studies out in different languages.

The explanation of the process undertaken to effectively translate the BMQ into the Maltese language is presented in the results and discussion section under the section BMQ. During the analysis of alpha, items G4 Natural remedies are safer than medicines and G8 If doctors had more time with patients they would prescribe fewer medicines resulted in unexpectedly lower questionnaie. In the Spanish study by De las Cuevas et al.

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Internal consistency and reliability for these sub-scales were also comparable to the other studies with the closest values being those reported in the Greek version used to study patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Medicines are vital components which are needed to maintain and improve health, however, they may still be perceived as unsafe, expensive, and unavailable, and on most occasions, are not taken properly. Due to the nature of the items loading, component 1 was identified as the General-overuse scale, with the items developed as representative of the overuse scale, G1, G4, G7, G8 all loaded on component 1.

BMQ – Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire

To further confirm factor loading, PCA was then carried out on the items in each sub-scale in order to verify that the items in each sub-scale were loading on one component. Patients were recruited through the outpatient clinics, of the main general hospital, in Malta, between July and September Sao Paulo Med J. Medication beliefs and antihypertensive adherence among older adults: Comparing three Scandinavian translations of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire.

Table 2 Demographic characteristics of study sample.

Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

Problems with G4 were also present in other studies. Tavakol M, Denick R. Evaluacion de las creencias sobre el tratamiento: Cross-cultural adaptation of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire into Portuguese. Ingrid GattLorna M. The back translation was reviewed against the English version so as to ensure conceptual equivalence of the translation carried out, avoiding mistranslations and translation losses which would render an incomplete replication of the source questionnaire in the target one.

All values fall within the range obtained by the original study 21with the exception of the General-Overuse scale. Int J Clin Health Psychol.

bdliefs Authors proceeded to comment that further studies were required in order to resolve this issue and recommend caution in using this scale. The Beliefss about Medicines Questionnaire BMQdeveloped by Professor Robert Horne and colleagues, as a method for assessing cognitive representations of medication, was validated for use in patients suffering from common chronic diseases.

Patient selection and recruitment Four different chronic illness groups were selected based on those selected by Horne et al. Comparisons of Internal consistency alpha values obtained in the Maltese study with the original and others published in different languages.


A target sample size of patients per disease group was established. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Therefore, patients with different levels of education should be targeted quesstionnaire when counselling patients about their medicines.

The items are scored on a 5 point Likert scale with scores ranging from 4 to Cognitive debriefing results and finalisation Finalisation of the translation allowed for any necessary modifications or rewording of the items. Since the original English version presents a 4-component structure, PCA was conducted bms restriction to 4 components.

Table 7 Qjestionnaire component analysis using varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalisation. The patients selected were those with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma, diabetes, depression or cardiovascular disease. George D, Mallery P. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. Principal Component Analysis Principal component analysis with Varimax rotation confirmed the original four factor structure Table 6 and Table 7 beliegs Percentage of Variance explained Thus, alpha was recalculated first by eliminating G8 from the scale, then by eliminating G4 from the scale in order to see the differences between both responses.

In the case of the BMQ-Specific items, S1, S3, S4, S7 and S10 loaded all on component 3 necessityconfirming this as the Specific-necessity scale, as all items correspond to the items developed as representative neliefs this scale.

Permission was obtained from Prof Robert Horne the developer for use of the instrument. Maltese nationality; taking medication for their condition for at least two months; and being 18 years of age and over. The questionnaire was abkut. Table 6 Principal component analysis using varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalisation.

Finalisation of the translation allowed for any necessary modifications or rewording of the items.

J Eval Clin Pract. One independent forward translation was carried out using Maltese fonts by the principal investigator.