G. R. Driver & L. Hodgson, The Bazaar of Heracleides, newly translated from the Syriac and edited with an introduction, notes & appendices. only surviving full-length work, the Bazaar of Heracleides.1 The publication of the Syriac text in , together with a French translation in the same year, is of. It is called indeed the Bazaar of Heracleides, for this is evident that it is the bazaar of spiritual knowledge; but it is not evident who Heracleides [was]. This is .

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Was it because thou didst suppose that it was the same and people ought not to speak thus, but that it was enough for them to begin thence whence thou didst begin and didst make a beginning and correct them? He [himself] distinguishes in several parts, he who says that the humanity is conceived by nature in the divinity but that the humanity is not conceived to be the divinity, and that God the Word was not in both the natures either in schema or without the substance of the flesh or in passibility or in the action of the sensibility and in the nature of the flesh.

Here we seem to find that although Nestorius looks on the death of Christ as ransoming mankind from the devil, yet he rejects certain ways of explaining that theory of the Atonement. And consequently the only begotten who is in the bosom of his Father has expounded unto us God whom no one has ever seen; and no one else than he who was in the bosom of his Father came and became flesh and dwelt among us; and he is in the bosom of his Father and with us, in that he is what the Father is, and he has expounded unto us what he is in the bosom of his Fatherit being evident that he has not explained the infinity and the incomprehensibility of the ousia.

And since there was this suffering in their soul, they served him for the sake of him who commanded them, though not with a good will. And therefore it was united without intelligence that he might not be supposed as it were to have dwelt in man, but to have been united for the completion of the human nature. For if anything touching the faith has been omitted in their statements, we shall lend it our aid with all our might, in order that their discomfiture may be exceeding great, since they are supposed by many to be unshaken and unaltered, although they are not.

Thus we confess one Lord Christ who took his name at birth from the blessed Mary but is indeed man, yea even in the death, yea even in the resurrection, yea even in the ascension, yea even in his coming from Heaven; of all these things thou now strippest him.

What words those use who say that the nature of the body was changed into the ousia of God the Word. Then there has bazasr been an hypostatic and natural but a voluntary union with the body and with the rational and intelligent soul which are united hypostatically and naturally in the nature of the man.

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But the [name] ‘man’ on the one hand is indicative of the union of two natures, of the soul and of the body, but that 75 of a nature, for the nature is one thing and the union of the natures another. What purpose indeed could it have served that God the Word also should associate himself with him in operations and should operate with him as though he could not of himself observe the commandments?

In this one and in that and in another he dwells, and he acts also in all; and all of them are not equal to all nor like one another, but [all are] according to the love of him who dwells in them.

Thomas Evangelical Church The individual humanity of Christ might have been exalted, but the devil’s fetters would be rivetted on the rest of mankind. The Second Council of Constantinople of AD confirmed the validity of the condemnation of Nestorius, refuting the letter of Ibas of Edessa that affirms that Nestorius was condemned without due inquiry.

Bishops of Byzantium and Patriarchs of Constantinople. This is his principal calumny, so that you, since you are judges concerning this, ought at all times to take heed that, if you find that I have imagined thuscondemn me and I too will condemn myself.

The Bazaar Of Heracleides

But thou considerest mere those which exist not both in ousia: But he spoke not of him but of the Son of Man, who by his grace was in the rank of the image of the Son of God, and thereby he was the Son and the only begotten by good will; in whom dwells all the fulness of the divinity in bodily frame. But you, O just judges, what have you examined of these things? They have not examined these things as judges, nor further has he spoken as before examiners and judges, but he stood forth as the witness of a judge-accuser.

All these things are changes of the nature of God the Word, being naturally given to him that he might suffer, and [that] thou mightest predicate of him a nature passible and changeable and variable. By a rescript of the following year Nestorius himself was banished to Arabia, but he was actually sent to Egypt, where from a reference in Socrates he is known to have been in But it is not possible for one who is naturally united to escape; for if he were not naturally to suffer the sufferings of the body, he would suffer them as the soul instead of the soul, because he is instead of the soul which reflected not as intelligence and whose in its reflection he was instead of intelligence.

Nestorius, The Bazaar of Heracleides () pp Book 1, Part 1.

But if the things which were commanded had been possible to do and had not been observed, justly would Satan have been condemned; for, when he could obey, he obeyed not but rose up against God by means of the schema of a man and slandered God before man as jealous, and man before God as ungrateful; and he is the enemy of all and has received a just judgement and has been openly convicted. But the incarnation of the Word was not imposed on him from without; it was due to his own free choice, and his godhead remained a free co-operator throughout.


He was not [formed] of things which existed not nor of any other hypostasis, and there was not when he was not. Although it were indeed the day which was fixed and [on which] the convocation ought to have taken place, if anything were to happen so that it should be delayed, another additional day would rightly be granted, even as among men there are many causes which come upon them of necessity, so that things are not done in accordance with the strict provisions of the appointed period.

For I have said that the name of ‘Christ’ and [that] of ‘Son’ are indicative of the two natures, of the divinity and of the humanity[a thing] with which there is nothing equal in those things which have been saidin such wise that it is not right to take heed of the name but of that which it indicates.

But on account of your incapacity you remained in darkness, so that you were not even able to see things which were evident. Against those who say not that God was changed into the nature of a man, but that he changed the ousia of man into the ousia of God. But certainly as regards the unity of the divinity and of the humanity it was not so.

He came not to change his unchangeable ousia and to make it the ousia of the flesh but to raise up our miserable and changeable [ ousia ] to his own unchangeable [ousia] and to make it divine and adorable, not of itself but in the union.

But we shall participate in him in the name which is more excellent than all names, before which every knee shall bow which is in heaven heracleidees in the earth and beneath the earth and which every tongue shall confess. But it is otherwise deposited and to be said, and two sons are not to be conceived.

God therefore is no more of an impassible but of a passible nature, being conceived hearcleides of that which he became by the natural union, while he became anew that which was newly created. For I have not said ‘a fleshly Christ’, but ‘Christ who [is] in flesh’, I speak of the flesh of Christ by reason of the conjunction with God the Word, as being indeed united to and not distinguished from God the Word.

In whatever sense the bread becomes the Body of Christ, in that same sense we become the Body of Christ by participating in the Sacrament.

The Word became flesh ; balancing in the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and so on.