ASTM F MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE. FOR FALL ACCIDENT INJURY CRITERIA. Macky KATO1, Yoshie SHIMODAIRA2, Takeshi SATO3 and Hiromi. specification for playground surfacing performance (ASTM F). The most common misconception stems from the thought that if a playground surfacing. F, the voluntary standard for measuring impact attenuation of can meet the impact attenuation requirements of ASTM F, as long.

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G-max and HIC scores shall be recorded as temporal scores. And they tend to decrease linearly as the sand depth increased.

The dimensions and configuration of the use zone shall be dependent upon the type of play equipment, as specified in Section 9. The Standard states there is only limited evidence that conformance with the requirements of the standard reduces the risk of other kinds of serious injury for example, long bone fractures. The HIC is defined as a specific integral of the acceleration-time history of an impact, adopted to determine relative risk of head injury.

Regression equations of standardized procedure and those of shortened procedure Figure 4 shows the results of regression analysis for G-max of the standardized and shortened procedures.

In lieu of the increase in long bone fractures to children ages 5 through 12 the question has been raised as to whether a lower g-Max f1922 HIC threshold would significantly t1292 serious temporary and long term head injuries and concussions as well has reduce the number of long bone fractures.

Inj Prev 6—4. Support Center Support Center. Is it a lack of sufficient depth of loose-fill materials?

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

With this in mind, this study proposes a shortened measurement procedure and a transformation equation to estimate the risk as same as F The waves on the sand have two peaks because there were two types of impacts. However, the measurement procedure is too complicated for application to a large number of installed equipment.

Here is how it can be accomplished. ast,

All playground areas and equipment should astk inspected for excessive wear, deterioration, and any potential hazards, such as those shown in Table 3 Specifically Problems with surfacing i. For r1292 past 30 years playground safety advocates have used the best information available at the time to support the evolution of our standards and guidelines.


Discussion Attenuation by loose fill material Variation of acceleration at the moment of impact depends on the drop height and sand depth.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

The injury statistics indicate no measureable or significant impact on the frequency or severity of fall-related injuries. Figure 2 shows the variation of acceleration at the moment of impact.

Use zones of certain types of equipment may overlap unless otherwise specified. They can be added to the value measured by the shortened procedure.

Many of these play equipment factors are addressed in the ASTM F standard for performance requirements of public play equipment. Figure 6 shows the coefficient difference of the regression equation for G-max and the HIC between the standardized and shortened procedures.

When the other types of loose fill materials are used for attenuation in future studies, other transformation equations would be required.

Determining who should take the lead and who should fund this project is the biggest obstacle to moving forward. Inj Prev 10—9. Thus, F can be considered reliable.

The conclusion of this study as it relates to safety surfacing systems focused on the criterion for determining impact attenuation thresholds for the reduction of life threatening permanently debilitating head injuries to children. Attenuation of impact by loose fill surface Some types of loose fill surface are installed to attenuate the impact of fall accidents.

The information necessary to maintain compliance with these Standards should include everything related to maintaining performance including, but not limited to installation requirements; maintenance procedures and special materials or tools required; inspection frequency; routine and foreseeable maintenance requirements; and repairs required to keep the system in compliance with ASTM F and the various impact-attenuating surfacing standards as referenced and implied below.

Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard. On the contrary, that for the HIC tends to decrease as sand depth increases. This tendency in the HIC is larger relative to G-max. In fact, no standards developing institution including the CPSC has ever claimed to eliminate serious long bone fractures.

Factors that are known to affect surfacing material performance include but are not limited to aging, moisture, maintenance, exposure to temperature extremes for example, freezingexposure to ultraviolet light, contamination with other materials, compaction, loss of thickness, shrinkage, submersion in water, and so forth.

Another is a test of the installed surface performance of playground equipment. For example, f1229 loose fill materials on the ground, which is an effective countermeasure, could keep them safe. However, the transformation equation can be applied to reveal the potential risk of injury, because the coefficients of aatm shortened procedure are stronger than those of standard procedure. Knowing what F129 have learned about surfacing and surfacing performance in the field, I do not feel comfortable with the current amount of information these standards provide as industry recommendations to guide those responsible for maintaining the minimum requirements for impact attenuation surfacing performance and accessibility within the use zones and accessible routes.


There are many variables known to affect surfacing material performance including but not limited to the natural aging process, excessive or lack of moisture, maintenance requirements, many environmental factors, compaction, loss of thickness, shrinkage, and the list goes on. This height can be considered as an approximation of the fall height below which a life-threatening head injury would not be expected f1229 occur.

Consequently, the specification is appropriately used to determine the actual impact attenuation performance of installed playground surfaces under ambient conditions of use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to t1292.

Over 15, people are accidentally killed in daily life in Japan every year.

The suggested shortened procedure and the transformation equation would enable easy measurement. While it is believed that conformance with the requirements of this specification will reduce the risk of serious injury and death from falls, adherence to this specification will not prevent all injuries and deaths.

The shortened procedure can reduce the measuring time by reducing the number of tests compared with the standardized procedure for the installed surface performance test. G-max is the measure of the maximum acceleration shock produced by an impact. However the administrative phases are not the objective of this study from the viewpoint of shortening procedures in the physical operation.

Clin Pediatr Phila 4866— If it is not compliant to all the standards it will be argued the injury may not have occurred.