English translation of. Holy Akaranga Sutra. English translation by Hermann Jacobi taken from Contents: Introduction. Akaranga Sutra: First Book: 1. Knowledge of the weapon. 2. Conquest of the world. 3. Hot and cold. 4. Righteousness. 5. Essence of the. Gaina Sutras, Part I – The Akaranga Sutra, The Kalpa Sutra [transl; F. Max Muller Hermann Jacobi] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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The last two rules could just as well be taken from a sacred book of the Gainas, for they akarangaa in full. That sage has seen the path to final liberation for whom there exists no property.

There exists none, there is none. But they cannot help thee or protect thee, nor canst thou help them or protect them. The knowledge of these Purvas was gradually lost, till at last it became totally extinct. Quality is the seat of the root, and the sktra of the root is quality. If one is able to get out of the water and reach the bank, one should circumspectly remain on the bank with a wet or moist body. Ethics of Jainism Sallekhana. How is it then that so many writers are inclined to accord a different age and origin to the Gaina sect from what can be deduced from their own literature?

Those who are appeased, who are free from passion, do not desire to live. In this as in many other cases I have preferred to give in my translation the meaning which Silanka has given in his commentary. He who knows these causes of sin relating to the aggregate of the six kinds of lives, is called a reward-knowing sage. He should not kill, nor cause others to kill, nor consent to the killing of others.

Adopting the akarya’s views, imitating his indifference for the outer worldmaking him the guide and adviser in all one’s matterssharing his abode, conquering sinfulnessone sees the truth; unconquered one should be one’s own master, having no reliance on anything in the world. Then he should there and then effect the religious death called itvara [fasting to death while keeping akarangz a limited space].

But know further, that, after winter is gone and the hot season has come, one should leave off the used-up garment of the threebeing clad with ‘an upper and under garment, or with the undermost garment, or with one gown, or with no clothes-aspiring to freedom from bonds. We may therefore conclude that chronologically also the sacred books of the Gainas stand nearer those of the Southern Buddhists than the works of later Prakrit writers.


For the sake of the splendour, honour, and glory of akarnaga life, for the sake of birth, death, and final liberation, for the removal of pain, all these causes of sin are at work, which are to be comprehended and renounced in this world.

In this world full of pain, suffering by their different acts, see the benighted ones cause great pain. But on the contrary he suffers day and night, works in the right and sutea wrong time, desires wealth and treasures, commits injuries and violent acts, again and again directs his mind upon these injurious doings; for his own sake, to support or to be supported by his relations, friends, the ancestors, gods, the king, thieves, guests, paupers, Sramanas.

For the detailed lists of teachers handed down in the several Gakkhas [2], and those incorporated in their sacred books, show that the Gainas did possess an interest in the history of their church. Such is he who maintains the right doctrine of Self.

Employing their judgment, they should know something for certain and something for uncertain Having received food or not having received food, having eaten it or not having eaten it, has come or has not come, akarangz or does not come, will come or will suttra come.

One who has adopted one of these seven rules for begging food or drink should not say: A well-informed man akarranga and renouncing the body and pleasuresshould not eat his saliva ; he should not oppose himself to the current of knowledge.

The unwise sleep, the sages always wake.

One should not abandon firmness. He should move to and fro on his groundcontract and stretch his limbs for the benefit of the whole body; or he should remain quiet as if he were lifeless.

Jaina Sutras, Part I (SBE22) Index

Knowing them, a wise man should not act sinfully towards wind, nor cause others to act so, nor allow others to act so. If the reverend persons frequent such-like lodgings viz.

Not enlightened about the cause of these ills he is afflicted by themalways turns round in the whirl of birth and death. Not devoted to any of the external objects he reaches the end of his life; thinking that patience is the highest good, he should choose one of the described three good methods of entering Nirvana. Disregarding slights difficult to bear, the Sage wandered about, not attracted by story-tellers, pantomimes, songs, fights at quarter-staff, and boxing-matches.


Well considering what one is to sayspeaking with precision, one should employ language in moderation and restraint: When he has eaten or drunk at a festive entertainment, he might vomit what he has eatenor not well digest it; or some other bad disease or sickness might befall him. Those who are awakened, should not wish for pleasure, nor do harm, nor desire any forbidden things. However, it is not enough to have proved that the Gainas, even before the redaction of their sacred books, possessed the qualities necessary for continuing their creed and tradition, and preserving them from corruptions caused by large borrowings from other religious systems; we must also show that they did do what they were qualified to do.

When the thought occurs to a mendicant: If therefore some ascetics already had ceased to recite the Veda, we may conclude that others began to disregard it as revelation and the highest authority.

Some, turning from controlassign its difficulty as their reason for doing so ; others, falling from the pure knowledge and defiling the creed, though not without devotion, for the love of life.

That which you consider worth disciplining is like yourself. He who knows one thing, knows all things; and he who knows all things, knows one thing. As it would be unto thee, so it is with him whom thou intendest to torment.

jaina akaranga sutra

During many centuries,’ he says, ‘the Gainas had not become distinct from the numerous groups of ascetics who could not boast of more than an obscure floating existence. He is fit for penance, as has been declared by the Revered One. However this difference matters little: Therefore keep in your mind what I say. But the reduction consists almost entirely in the omission of Silanka’s comments on the Niryukti verses, which form his introduction to every lecture and lesson.

Such tenets as the Gainas share with the Buddhists, both sects have in common with the Brahmanic philosophers, e. For Professor Buhler thinks that the lower limit for the composition of the Apastamba Sara must be placed in the fourth or fifth century B.