TI’s cost optimized, D-CAP™ mode, synchronous buck controller, TPS .. Reproduction of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible. The TPS is a cost effective, synchronous buck Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet. TPS datasheet, TPS circuit, TPS data sheet: TI – SINGLE SYNCHRONOUS STEP-DOWN CONTROLLER,alldatasheet, datasheet, Datasheet.
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The PSpice transient switching model can be effectively used to evaluate device behavior.
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However, a principle drawback is that the switching frequency can vary with input voltage, output voltage, and the load making EMI less than deterministic. As such, this controller achieves a relatively constant switching frequency while inheriting the merits of a constant-on time control.
Figure 2 illustrates how adaptive on-time control delivers exceptional output voltage transient response. Notice that turn-on output voltage disturbance is barely measurable while the mV positive disturbance at turn-off is solely determined by the output filter response to a load step as expressed in:.
The sufficient condition for stable operation is achieved by setting the 0-dB frequency below half the switching frequency, or more conservatively:. As f 0 is determined solely by the output capacitor characteristics, loop stability is determined by capacitor chemistry.
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Given the above restriction, specialty polymer capacitors SP-CAP easily satisfy the above equation and are often selected. Built-in PSpice default models and those more advanced macro models in the accompanying libraries make creating an accurate representation of the circuit much easier. However, environmental conditions, parasitics associated with the particular layout and alternate component substitutions can alter the response. The behavior of each device model must be considered.
Take for example the output ripple behavior simulated in Fig. A capacitor datasheet rarely provides the kind of characterization needed datsheet model a device accurately. Thus, the output capacitor should be carefully measured on an impedance analyzer to determine the intrinsic ESR at the desired operating point.
The aforementioned simulation caveats are especially true with controllers that are dependent on external parasitic behavior. Having a PSpice model of the pulse width modulation PWM controller that can respond to these changes is extremely helpful in analyzing how the system responds to supply tolerances, load variations or component tolerances.
For steady dahasheet analyses, the ESR at the switching frequency is usually sufficient. However, for load and line step simulations, datasheef broadband model with ESR accurate over several decades of frequency is often required.
In this case a ladder type subcircuit model should be employed. The key to simulation speed is the iteration count, the number of time steps the simulator requires or is required to perform. A constant-current load source and a resistive load can produce different results, especially in the frequency domain simulations.
Line impedance including resistance and inductance should be modeled, especially if the leads from the power supply to the test board are more than a few feet.
Panasonic web site, Capacitor Dielectrics: Learn more about Texas Instruments. Schematic of a buck converter 4.
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Synchronous buck load step response; output voltage and load and inductor current. Notice that turn-on output voltage disturbance is barely measurable while the mV positive disturbance at turn-off is solely determined by the output filter response to a load step as expressed in: Multimode operation and load-step response The aforementioned simulation caveats are especially true with controllers that are dependent on external parasitic behavior.
One of the most impressive characteristics of D-Cap mode is its ability to seamlessly transition from PWM mode to a lower loss, or pulse frequency modulation PFM mode of operation. The high-gain comparator responses to the load change results in minimal output disturbance, which agrees with the bench and datasheet measurements.
Output-voltage step up and down response to a 1. The switch node and inductor current are also shown, along with a close up version of the output voltage, which matches the data sheet response very closely.
The TPS PSpice model supports a parameterized time-accelerated soft-start feature to reach steady state faster, then transitions into a no-load condition. This saves a great deal of simulation time. While the model can simulate the full startup sequence, shortening the time to get to steady state is helpful when simulating line or load step events. In discontinuous conduction mode DCM mode, the switch node resonates at a frequency largely determined by the FET output capacitance and output inductor.
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